Governors of the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period

Zamboanga City History

MIGUEL LOPEZ DE LEGAZPI—Native of Zubarraja (Zumárraga), Guipúzcoa, born in early part of sixteenth century; goes to Mexico in 1545, where he becomes clerk of the cabildo; appointed in 1561 to lead expedition to discover western islands; lands at Cebu, April 27, 1565: begins fort and takes possession of Cebu and neighboring islands for Spain, May 8, 1565; takes possession of Manila, May 19, 1571; erects city of Manila, June 3, 1571, and appoints regidors, etc., June 24, 1571; death, August 20, 1572; term as governor February 13 (date of first anchorage near Cebu)-August 20, 1572; also adelantado or governor of the Ladrones.

GUIDO DE LABEZARESBiscayan; accompanies Villalobos expedition of 1542; appointed royal treasurer of Legazpi's expedition, 1564; appointed by Mexico Audiencia by sealed instructions to succeed Legazpi in case of the latter's death; succeeds to governorship, August 20 (?), 1572; orders Salcedo to subdue Ilocos and found town of Fernandina (now Bigan), and orders subjection of Camarines, 1573; defends Manila against pirate Limahon, 1574; apportions encomiendas; term as governor (ad interim), August 20 (?), 1572-August 25, 1575; given appointment for life as master-of-camp, by Felipe II, and encomiendas of which he has been deprived by Sande, restored to him.

DOCTOR FRANCISCO DE SANDE—Native of Cáceres; serves as attorney, criminal judge, and auditor in Mexico; succeeds Labezares, August 25, 1575; founds city of Nueva Cáceres; arrival of first Franciscans, 1577; expedition to Borneo, 1578; term as governor, August 25, 1575-April, 1580; becomes auditor in Mexico Audiencia.

GONZALO RONQUILLO DE PEÑALOSA—Native of Arévalo; alguazil-mayor in Mexico; contracts with king to colonize islands, for which to receive governorship for life; arrives at Manila, April, 1580; arrival of bishop and first Jesuits, 1581 ; founds Arévalo, 1581 or 1582; founds Nueva Cáceres, 1582; expedition to Maluco, 1582; imposes import and export duties, 1582 ; conflict between the bishop and Augustinians, 1582; sends Gabriel Rivera to Spain; death, March 10, 1583; term as governor, April, 1580-March 10, 1583.

DIEGO RONQUILLO—Nephew of preceding; appointed governor ad interim by royal decree, succeeding to government, March 10, 1583; first great Manila fire, March 19 , 1583; term as governor March 10, 1583-May, 1584.

DOCTOR SANTIAGO DE VERA—Native of Alcalá de Henares; alcalde of Mexico; arrives at Manila, May 16, 1584; establishes first Audiencia of Manila, 1584; sends Diego Ronquillo prisoner to Spain, 1585; sends expedition to Maluco, 1585; Father Sanchez leaves for Spain, June 28, 1586; arrival of Dominicans for their first mission, 1587; constructs first stone fort, 1587; Candish captures "Santa Ana," November, 4, 1587; insurrection in the Bisayas, 1588; term as governor, May 16, 1584-May, 1590; appointed auditor in Mexico Audiencia.

GOMEZ PEREZ DASMARIÑAS—Native of Galicia, and knight of Order of Santiago; corregidor of Murcia and Cartagena, 1589; appointed governor of Philippines, 1589; sails for Mexico, December 8, 1589; sails from Acapulco, March 1, 1590; arrives at Manila, May (June 1, according to his own letter, q.v., VOL. VIII, p. 268), 1590; suppresses Audiencia, 1590; establishes regular camp, and fortifies and walls Manila; quarrels with bishop; contracts with Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa to conquer Mindanao, May 12, 1591; correspondence with Japan, 1592; Bishop Salazar goes to Spain, 1592; embassy from Camboja, 1593; sails on Maluco expedition, October 19, 1593; murdered by Chinese rowers, October 25, 1593; term as governor, May (or June 1), 1590-October 25, 1593.

LICENTIATE PEDRO DE ROJAS—Auditor of Manila Audiencia, 1584; lieutenant-assessor, 1590; governor (ad interim), October-December (forty days) 1593; war affairs of islands in charge of Diego Ronquillo; appointed alcalde of Mexico, 1593.

LUIS PEREZ DASMARIÑAS—Son of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, and knight of Order of Alcántara; receives governorship ad interim, by virtue of appointment of father, December (Zúñiga says 3), 1593; foundation in Manila of Confraternity of La Misericordia, 1594; arrival in Manila of Chinese mandarins, 1594; embassy from Siam, 1595; Figueroa's expedition to Mindanao, 1595; Morga arrives at Manila as lieutenant-governor, June 11, 1595; expedition to Camboja under Gallinato, 1596; term as governor, December 3, 1593-July 14, 1596 (San Antonio says the last of June). Some historians and chronologists say that Dr. Antonio de Morga acted as governor ad interim from his entrance into Manila, June 11, 1595, until Tello's arrival July 14, 1596, but he merely fulfilled the duties of his office of lieutenant-governor. In his letters after his arrival, and in his book, he distinctly states that Luis Perez Dasmariñas was governor. Tello says in a letter of July 17, 1596 (see VOL. IX, pp. 274-277), "In respect to the person of Don Luis Perez Dasmariñas, whom I found acting as governor." Consequently Morga is given no place in this list.

FRANCISCO DE TELLO DE GUZMÁN—Native of Sevilla, and knight of Order of Santiago; treasurer of India House of Trade; appointed governor and president of Audiencia, which he is ordered to reëstablish, by royal decree, November 26, 1595; enters Manila, July 14, 1596; martyrdom of Franciscans in Japan, February 5, 1597; arrival of first archbishop, May 1598; Audiencia reëstablished, May 8, 1598; arrivals of first suffragan bishops, 1598-1600; Moro invasions, 1599-1600; Morga's fight with Oliver van Noordt, December 14, 1600; Jesuit seminary of San José founded, 1601; term as governor, July 14, 1596-May, 1602; death in Manila, April 1603.

PEDRO BRAVO DE ACUÑA—Knight of the Order of St. John, and comendador of Salamanca; appointed governor of Cartagena in West Indies, 1593; appointed governor of the Philippines as early as January 16, 1600 (see VOL. XI, p. 312); instructions issued for, February 16, 1602; arrives at Manila, May, 1602; second fire in Manila, April 30, 1603; first Chinese insurrection, 1603 ; expedition to Maluco, January 15-May 31, 1606; Audiencia rules during his absence; first Japanese insurrection, 1606; death, June 24, 1606.

VACANT —The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and Auditor CRISTOBAL TELLEZ DE ALMANSA of military affairs, June 24, 1606; arrival of first Recollect mission, 1606; second insurrection of Japanese, 1607; Audiencia governs; June 24, 1606-June 15, 1608.

RODRIGO DE VIVERO—Native of Laredo; page to queen in Spain, and official in Nueva España; appointed governor (ad interim) by royal decree, July 7, 1607; arrives at Manila, June 15, 1608; issues instructions to alcaldes-mayor; term as governor, June 15, 1608-April (Easter), 1609; appointed count of Valle, and governor and captain-general, and president of Audiencia of Panama.

JUAN DE SILVA—Native of Trujillo, and knight of the Order of Santiago; arrives in Manila April (Easter), 1609; brings reënforcements of five companies; victory over Wittert, April 25 (San Antonio says 24), 1610; arrival of fourth archbishop, Diego Vazquez de Mercado, June 4, 1610; fruitless expedition against Dutch, 1611; expedition in conjunction with Portuguese against Dutch, February 4, 1616-April 19, 1616; death, April 19, 1616; Audiencia governs during absence; term as governor, April, 1609-April 19, 1616.

VACANT —The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and Auditor Licentiate ANDRÉS ALCARAZ of military affairs, as substitute for Jerónimo (uncle of Juan) de Silva, who is appointed governor (ad interim) in case of Juan de Silva's death, by royal decree of March 20 (Delgado) or 28 (San Antonio), 1616 (Alcaraz having been left in charge by Juan de Silva on his departure to Malaca); return of fleet, June 1, 1616; Spielberg bombards Iloílo, September 29, 1616, and is defeated next day; his defeat at Playa Honda by Juan Ronquillo, April 14, 1617; Jerónimo de Silva arrives from Maluco and takes charge of military affairs, September 30, 1617; Audiencia governs (after Juan de Silva's death), April 19, 1616-June 8 (Delgado), 1618.

ALONSO FAJARDO Y TENZA—Native of Murcia, knight of the Order of Alcántara, and seigneur of Espinardo; arrives at Cavite, July 2, 1618, and takes charge of government on the day following, (but June 8 is the erroneous date given by Buzeta and Bravo); foundation of convent of Santa Clara, August-November 1, 1621; kills wife for adultery, 1621; checks insurrection in the Visayas, 1623; death from melancholy, July 11 (Delgado) or before July, 23, 1624; term as governor, July 3, 1618-July, 1624.

VACANT—The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and JERÓNIMO DE SILVA of military affairs at death of Fajardo; Silva imprisoned by Audiencia for failure to pursue Dutch whom he puts to flight near Playa Honda, 1624; Audiencia governs, July, 1624-June, 1625.

FERNANDO DE SILVA—Native of Ciudad-Rodrigo, knight of the Order of Santiago, and former ambassador to Persia; appointed governor (ad interim) by viceroy of Mexico; arrives at Manila, June, 1625; term as governor, June 1625-June 29, 1626.

JUAN NIÑO DE TABORA—Native of Galicia, comendador of Puerto Llano, and knight of Order of Calatrava; master-of-camp in Flanders; arrives at Manila, June 29 (Retana, Estadismo, says wrongly July 29), 1626; dispatches expedition against Moros, 1627-1630; builds Manila bridge and strengthens fortifications; death, July 22, 1632; term as governor, June 29, 1626-July 22, 1632.

VACANT—The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and LORENZO DE OLAZA (or Olaso) of military affairs, being appointed by viceroy of Mexico; Audiencia governs July 22, 1632-about the middle of 1633.

JUAN CEREZO DE SALAMANCA—Appointed governor (ad interim) by viceroy of Mexico; expeditions against Moros, 1634-1635; establishes construction of grand fortress of Fuerza de San José on June 23, 1635 in Zamboanga; term as governor, about middle of 1633-June 25, 1635.

SEBASTIÁN HURTADO DE CORCUERA—Native of Berbenda (Bergüenda) in the mountains of Burgos (some say of Vitoria, in province Alava), knight of the Order of Alcántara, and ex-governor of Panama; arrives in Manila, June 25, 1635; term notable for troubles with archbishop and ecclesiastics; continues construction of grand fortress of Fuerza de San José (in Zamboanga) and expeditions against Moros, 1637-1638; Chinese insurrection, November, 1639-March, 1640; Formosa captured by Dutch, August 24, 1642; gives first ordinances for good government in the Philippines, 1642; term as governor, June 25, 1635-August 11, 1644; arrested and held prisoner for five years by successor; released by order of king and appointed (1659) governor of Canaries; death at Tenerife, August 12, 1660.

DIEGO FAJARDO—Knight of the Order of Santiago; takes office, August 11, 1644; dominated by secretary Eustacio de Venegas, until September 15, 1651; naval battles with, and victories over, Dutch, March, July, and August, 1646; fortifies city; term as governor, August 11, 1644-July 25, 1653.

SABINIANO MANRIQUE DE LARA—Native of Málaga, knight of the Order of Calatrava, and ex-castellan of Acapulco; arrives at Cavite, July 22, 1653; takes possession of government, July 25 (Retana, Estadismo, says July 28), 1653; earthquake in Manila, August 20, 1658; insurrections among natives 1660-1661; Chinese insurrection, 1662; Signed decree of May 6, 1662 ordering evacuation of San José Fort in Zamboanga and return of garrison to Manila to defend it against threat of invasion by Chinese pirate Koxinga; term marked by partial cessation in ecclesiastical troubles and outbreaks of Moros; term as governor, July 25, 1653-September 8, 1663; returns to Málaga after residencia and becomes priest.

DIEGO DE SALCEDO—Native of Brussels, an army officer; appointed governor by royal provision, December 2, 1661; arrives at Manila, overland from Cagayan, September 8, 1663; troubles with archbishop and ecclesiastics lead to his arrest by the Holy Office of the Inquisition, September 28, 1668; term as governor, September 8, 1663-September 28, 1668; sent to Mexico for trial in 1669, but dies at sea; Inquisition of Mexico exonerates.

JUAN MANUEL DE LA PEÑA BONIFAZ—Junior auditor of Manila Audiencia; succeeds as governor (ad interim) by trickery, September 28 (?), 1668; term as governor September 28 (?), 1668-September 24, 1669; takes refuge in Recollect convent. 93

MANUEL DE LEON—Native of Paredes de Nava, and military officer; appointed by royal provision June 24, 1668; arrives in Manila, September 24, 1669; conflict with archbishop, 1673; death, April 11, 1677; term as governor, September 24, 1669-April 11 , 1677.

VACANT—The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and Auditors FRANCISCO COLOMA and FRANCISCO SOTOMAYOR Y MANSILLA, successively, of military affairs; death of former, September 25, 1677; term of latter, September 25, 1677-September 21, 1678 (Delgado says September 22, 1679); Audiencia governs, April 11, 1677-September 21, 1678.

JUAN DE VARGAS HURTADO—Native of Toledo, knight of the Order of Santiago, and military officer; appointed by royal provision, June 18, 1677; arrives at Manila, September 21 1678 (Retana, Estadismo, says that he took charge of the government September 29); rebuilds college of Santa Potenciana; trouble with Archbishop Felipe Pardo; term as governor, September 28, 1678-August 24, 1684; is excommunicated; residencia lasts four years; dies at sea on way to Mexico, 1690.

GABRIEL DE CURUZEALEGUI Y ARRIOLA—Knight of the Order of Santiago, naval officer, member of council of war, and twenty-fourth regidor of Sevilla; arrives at Manila, August 24, 1684; reinstates archbishop, and exiles auditors; death, April 17 (Delgado and San Antonio) or 27 (Zúñiga), 1689; term as governor, August 24, 1684-April 17 or 27, 1689.

VACANT—The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs and Auditor ALONSO DE AVILA FUERTES, knight of the Order of Alcántara; Audiencia governs, April 17 or 27, 1689-July 19 (Delgado, and Buzeta and Bravo) or 25 (Zúñiga and Montero y Vidal), 1690.

FAUSTO CRUZAT Y GONGORA—Native of Navarra of a distinguished Pamplona family, and knight of the Order of Santiago; appointed by royal provision, January 15 (Delgado) or 31 (San Antonio), 1686; arrives at Manila, July 19 or 25, 1690; issues ordinances of good government, October 1, 1696; rebuilds governor's palace; term characterized by ecclesiastical troubles; term as governor, July 19 or 25, 1690-December 8, 1701.

DOMINGO ZABÁLBURU DE ECHEVARRI—Knight of the Order of Santiago, and military officer; appointed governor, September 18, 1694; arrives at Manila, December 8 (San Antonio says September), 1701; attends to public works; receives papal legate to China, Cárlos Tomás Maillard Tournon, without credentials (which leads to his dismissal by the king), September, 1704; term as governor, December 8, 1701-August 25, 1709; returns to Spain, 1710.

MARTIN DE URZUA Y ARISMENDI—Count of Lizarraga, and knight of the Order of Santiago; appointed by royal provision, August 19, 1704; arrives at Manila, August 25, 1709; diminishes number of Chinese at Manila; schism between Recollects, and other ecclesiastical troubles; death, February 4, 1715; term as governor, August 25, 1709-February 4, 1715.

VACANT—The Audiencia takes charge of political affairs, and Auditor Doctor JOSÉ TORRALBA of military affairs; carries on public works; Audiencia governs, February 4, 1715-August 9, 1717; Torralba arrested by next governor for deficit and misuse of funds; dies in Philippines in poverty, with sentence by Council of Indies of exile from Madrid and Manila.

FERNANDO MANUEL DE BUSTILLO BUSTAMENTE Y RUEDA —Usually called the "Mariscal," because he was the first mariscal-de-campo to govern the islands; ex-alcalde-mayor of Trascala, in Nueva España; appointed governor by royal provision, September 6, 1708; arrives at Manila, August 9, 1717; severe in judgments; reëstablishes garrison at Zamboanga (in 1718); his troubles with the ecclesiastics lead to arrest of archbishop, and to his assassination by a mob (said by some to have been instigated by Jesuits), October 11, 1719; term as governor, August 9, 1717-October 11, 1719.

FRAY FRANCISCO DE LA CUESTA—Of the Order of San Gerónimo; native of Colmenar de Oreja; elected archbishop of Manila, August 12, 1712; arrested by Bustillo Bustamente; becomes governor (ad interim), on refusal of auditors to serve, October 11, 1719; term as governor, October 11, 1719-August 6, 1721 ; transferred to bishopric of Mechocan, Mexico, entering, April 18, 1724; death, May 30 (Retana) or 31 (Buzeta and Bravo), 1724.

TORIBIO JOSÉ COSÍO Y CAMPO—Marquis of Torre Campo, knight of the Order of Calatrava, and ex-governor of Guatemala; appointed governor by royal provision, June 30, 1720; ordered by royal instructions to investigate death of Bustamente, October 6, 1720; arrives at Manila, August 6, 1721; does not investigate Bustamente's death, although ordered again (1724) to do so by the king, acting on the advice of the Franciscan Totanes and the Jesuits; troubles with Moros continue throughout his rule; term as governor, August 6, 1721-August 14, 1729.

FERNANDO VALDÉS Y TAMON—Colonel and brigadier, and knight of the Order of Santiago; appointed by royal provision, October 25, 1727; arrives at Manila, August 14, 1729; unsuccessfully attempts conquest of Palaos 1730-1733 ; reforms army and engages in other public works; receives royal decree of April 8, 1734, deciding suit favorably to islands with merchants of Cádiz and Sevilla over Chinese trade between American colonies and islands; term as governor, August 14, 1729-July, 1739; returns to Spain and appointed mariscal-de-campo.

GASPAR DE LA TORRE—Native of Flanders, brigadier of royal armies and gentleman of the king's bedchamber; arrives at Manila, July, 1739; expedition of Admiral George Anson occurs during his rule; harsh in government; death, September 21 (Buzeta and Bravo say 29), 1745; term as governor, July 1739-September 21, 1745.

FRAY JUAN ARRECHEDERRA—Native of Caracas, Dominican, bishop-elect of Nueva Segovia; becomes governor (ad interim), September 21, 1745; quells insurrection in Batangas; fortifies Manila and Cavite against English; term as governor, September 21, 1745-July 20 (Buzeta and Bravo, and Mas say June), 1750; death, November 12, 1751 (Delgado; Retana, Estadismo, says wrongly 1755).

JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE OBANDO Y SOLÍS—Native of Cáceres in Estremadura, marquis of Obando, member of his Majesty's council, and mariscal-de-campo of royal armies; in Lima when receives appointment; arrives at Manila, July 20, 1750; troubles with Audiencia and archbishop; troubles with Moros; term as governor, July 20, 1750-July, 1754; annoying residencia; death at sea, while on his way from Manila to Acapulco, 1755.

PEDRO MANUEL DE ARANDÍA SANTISTEBAN—Native of Ceuta, of Biscayan descent, knight of the Order of Calatrava, gentleman of bedchamber of the king of the Two Sicilies, captain of the royal Spanish guards and mariscal-de-campo of the royal armies; arrives at Manila, July (Retana, Estadismo, says June), 1754; reforms army and thereby incurs enmities; troubles with Moros continue; expels infidel Chinese and builds alcaicería of San Fernando; troubles with Audiencia and archbishop; death, May 31, 1759; term as governor, July, 1754-May 31, 1759.

MIGUEL LINO DE EZPELETA—Native of Manila, and bishop of Cebú; becomes governor (ad interim), against consent of part of Audiencia, June (Mas says July), 1759; archbishop claims governorship on his arrival at Manila, but opposed successfully by Ezpeleta; revokes ordinances of good government made by Arandía; brings suit aginst Santiago Orendaín, favorite of Arandía; royal decree gives governorship to archbishop, July, 1761; term as governor, June, 1759-July, 1761.

MANUEL ROJO—Native of Tala, Nueva España, and archbishop of Manila; takes possession of church, July 22, 1759; becomes governor (ad interim), July 1761; quashes case against Orendaín; bombardment, taking, and sack of Manila by English, and cowardice and imprisonment of archbishop, October, 1762; term as governor July, 1761-October, 1762, although maintained as governor by English until death; death as prisoner, January 30, 1764.

SIMON DE ANDA Y SALAZAR—Native of Subijana, born October 28, 1701; auditor; appointed by Audiencia lieutenant of the governor and captain-general; leaves Manila, October 4, 1762; establishes capital in Bacolor, Pampanga, and has himself proclaimed governor; British maintain archbishop as governor until his death, who cedes islands to them; insurrections of natives and Chinese, 1762-1764; negotiations with English, 1763-1764; term as governor (ad interim), October, 1762-March 17, 1764; receives keys to city from British, April, 1764.

FRANCISCO JAVIER DE LA TORRE—Military officer; becomes governor (ad interim), March 17, 1764; British evacuate Manila, April, 1764; tries to restore order; term as governor, March 17, 1764-July 6, 1765.

JOSÉ RAÓN—Native of Navarra, and mariscal-de-campo; arrives in Manila, July 6, 1765; Le Gentil arrives at Manila, October, 1766; Archbishop Santa Justa y Rufina takes his seat July 12, 1767; his conflicts with regular clergy; Raón revises ordinances of Arandía; expulsion of Chinese, 1769; expulsion of Jesuits and Raón's collusion with them; term as governor, July 6, 1,765-July, 1770; death, during residencia at Manila.

SIMON DE ANDA Y SALAZAR—Well received at court .on return after 1764, and made councilor of Castilla; directs letter to king complaining of certain disorders in the Philippines, enumerating among them a number against the friars, April 12, 1768; arrives at Manila as governor, July, 1770; proceeds against predecessor and others; rouses opposition of regulars; reforms army and engages in other public works; troubles with Moros continue; opposes king's order of November 9, 1774, to secularize curacies held by regulars, and the order repealed, December 11, 1776; rule characterized by his energy, foresight, honesty, and conflicts with the regulars; death, October 30, 1776, at seventy-six years of age; term as governor, July, 1770-October 30, 1776.

PEDRO SARRIO (Soriano: Buzeta and Bravo)—Official in Manila; becomes governor (ad interim), October 30, 1776 (Mas says July); continues operations against Moros; royal order to Indians to cultivate flax and hemp, January 12, 1777; term as governor, October 30{1776}-July 1778.

JOSÉ BASCO Y VARGAS—Born of an illustrious Granada family, and naval officer; arrives at Manila, July. 1778; Chinese allowed to return to Manila, 1778; opposed by Audiencia, some of whom, with certain military officers, he arrests for conspiracy, October, 1779; increases army and strengthens fortifications; tobacco monopoly established February 9, 1780-March 1, 1782; Sociedad Económica de Amigos del Pais ("Economic Association of Friends of the Country") established, 1781; insurrection in Ituy and Paniqui, 1785; royal approval of powder monopoly, November 4, 1786; various innovations occur during his term; encourages agriculture and other industries; asks to be relieved because of opposition from Audiencia; at king's permission sails for Spain, in the latter part of November, 1787; term as governor, July, 1778-November, 1787; appointed rear-admiral, governor of Cartagena, and count of the Conquest of the Batanes Islands (which he had conquered).

PEDRO DE SARRIO—Appointed governor (ad interim) for the second time, November 22, 1787, on departure of Basco; insurrection in Ilocos because of tobacco monopoly, 1787; death of archbishop Santa Justa y Rufina, December 15, 1787; term as governor, November 22, 1787-July 1, 1788.

FÉLIX BERENGUER DE MARQUINA—Naval officer; arrives at Manila July 1 (Buzeta and Bravo, and Retana say May), 1787; opposed by Audiencia; Manila becomes an open port for all but European products, by royal decree of August 15, 1789; proposes plans for government reforms in the Philippines; term as governor, July 1, 1788-September 1, 1793.

RAFAEL MARÍA DE AGUILAR Y PONCE DE LEON—Knight of the Order of Alcántara, military officer, and gentleman of the bedchamber; arrives at Cavite, August 28, 1793; enters government, September 1, 1793; strengthens fortifications, levies native troops, and inculcates various reforms; conflicts with Moros continue, and shipyard established (1794) at Binondo to build boats for the Moro war; receives title of mariscal-de-campo; energetic and tireless; hands over government to king's deputy or segundo cabo, August 7, 1806; term as governor, September r, 1793-August 7, 1806; death, August 8, 1806.

MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS—Native of Galicia; becomes governor (ad interim), August 7, 1806; insurrection in Ilocos, 1807; English commercial house given permission to establish itself in the islands, 1809; term as governor, August 7, 1806-March 4, 1810.

MANUEL GONZALEZ DE AGUILAR—Knight of the Order of Santiago, and military officer; arrives at Manila, March 4, 1810; in accordance with royal decrees of January 29 and February 14, 1810, permitting deputies from the colonies to be chosen for the Spanish Cortes, Philippine deputies are present in that of September 24, 1810; proposes cessation of Acapulco ship, 1810; insurrection (anti-friar and to establish new religion) in Ilocos, 1811; first newspaper established in Philippines, August 8, 1811; Spanish constitution of 1812 publicly received in Manila, April 17, 1813; Aguilar's term marked by various commercial movements; term as governor, March 4, 1810-September 4, 1813.

JOSÉ GARDOQUI JARAVEITIA—Naval officer; arrives at Manila, September 4, 1813; cessation of Acapulco ship; term marked by various governmental changes in consequence of decrees issued by Fernando VII, by certain commercial changes, and troubles with Moros; death, December 9, 1816; term as governor, September 4, 1813-December 9, 1816.

MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS—Becomes governor (ad interim) for the second time, December 10, 1816; province of Ilocos Norte created, February 2, 1818; orders reëstablishment of Real Sociedad Ecónomica de Filipinas ("Royal Economic Association of Filipinas"), December 17, 1819; massacre of foreigners by natives, October 9-10, 1820; establishment of three short-lived newspapers in 1821; term marked by closer connection with Spain; term as governor, December 10, 1816-0ctober 30, 1822; assassinated in insurrection of Spanish-Americans and Filipinos, 1823.

JUAN ANTONIO MARTÍNEZ—Native of Madrid, and mariscal-de-campo; arrives at Manila, October 30, 1822; accompanied by many new officials from Spain; insurrection of Filipinos and Spanish-Americans in consequence; newspaper founded by El Sociedad de Amigos del Pais, 1724; reactionary movements of Spain affect Philippines; term as governor, October 30, 1822-October 14, 1825; death, at sea while on way to Spain.

MARINAO RICAFORT PALACÍN Y ARARCA—Native of Murcia, mariscal-de-campo, and perpetual ambassador of the city of Paz, Peru; arrives at Manila, October 14, 1825; forbids foreigners to sell goods at retail, February 4, 1828; makes laws in many different directions; gives instructions for government of Mariana Islands, December 17, 1828; foundation of Dominican college in Ocaña, Spain, as a feeder for China and the Philippines, May 2, 1830 (approved, August 15, 1831); returns to Spain, December 23, 1830; term as governor, October 14, 1825-December 23, 1830.

PASCUAL ENRILE Y ALCEDO—Native of Cadiz, military officer and segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, December 23, 1830; expedition to Igorrotes, 1831-1832; lottery established, July 3, 1833; royal tribunal of commerce created in Manila, January 1, 1834; Guia de Forasteros (Guide book for strangers) first printed, 1834; Compañía de Filipinas dissolved by royal order of September 6, 1834; royal order of November 3, 1834, substitutes segundo cabo in office of governor, in case of latter's absence, sickness, or death; many useful laws passed and islands prosper during this term; term as governor, December 23, 1830-March 1, 1835.

GABRIEL DE TORRES—Native of Valladolid province, and segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, March 1, 1835; death, April 23, 1835 ; term as governor, March 1, 1835-April 23, 1835.

JUAN CRÁMER (Montero y Vidal) Juaquin de Crame (Mas, and Buzeta and Bravo)—Native of Cataluña; becomes governor (ad interim) as office of segundo cabo vacant, April 23, 1835; term as governor, April 23, 1835-September 9, 1835.

PEDRO ANTONIO SALAZAR CASTILLO Y VARONA—Native of Ibrillos (Rioja), and military officer; comes to Manila with appointment as segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), September 9, 1835; royal council of Spain and the Indies abolished by royal decree, September 28, 1836; by the promulgation in Madrid (June 18, 1837) of the political constitution of the Spanish monarchy, the Philippines lose their representation in the Cortés; term as governor, September 9, 1835-August 27, 1837.

ANDRÉS GARCÍA CAMBA—Knight of the Order of Santiago, and mariscal-de-campo; captured with royal army at battle of Ayacucho, Peru, December 9, 1824; residence in Manila April, 1825-March, 1835; receives royal approbation to appointment as commander-in-chief of military forces at Manila, May 22, 1826; appointed director of La Sociedad Económica de Amigos del Pais; elected to represent the Philippines in Spanish Cortés, 1834; appointed secretary of war (ad interim), August 15, 1836; elected to Cortés to represent Lugo (but did not sit), October 2, 1836; arrives at Manila, August 24, 1837; takes charge of government, August 27, 1837; given name of "El Deseado" ("the desired"); is opposed politically and by the ecclesiastics; term as governor, August 27, 1837-December 29, 1838; after return to Spain, elected senator for Valencia; minister of the marine, commerce, and government of the colonies, May 21, 1841-May 25, 1842.

LUIS LARDIZÁBAL—Arrives at Manila, December 26, 1838; enters upon government, December 29 (Montero y Vidal) or 30 (Mas), 1838; first issue of weekly paper, Precios corrientes de Manila ("Prices current in Manila") in Spanish and English, July 6, 1839; province of Nueva Vizcaya created, 1839; project for monument to Magalhães on the islet of Mactan submitted to supreme government, 1840; solicits recall; term as governor, December 29, 1838-February, 1841; death at sea on return voyage to Spain.

MARCELINO DE ORAÁ LECUMBERRI—Native of Navarra, and lieutenant-general; arrives at Manila, February, 1841; insurrections among Tagáls, the second of native soldiers, 1841 and 1843; newspaper Seminario filipino first published, 1843; term as governor, February, 1841-June 17, 1843.

FRANCISCO DE PAULA ALCALÁ DE LA TORRE—Native of Extremadura, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, June 17 (Buzeta and Bravo say 12), 1843; Isabel II declared of age and received as queen of Spain, December 1, 1843; Alcalá makes laws regulating commerce, the army, and welfare of the islands; term as governor, June 17, 1843-July 16, 1844.

NARCISO CLAVERÍA Y ZALDUA—Native of Gerona (but of Biscayan origin), and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, July 16, 1844; calendar in Philippines corrected, 1844; makes reforms in office of alcalde-mayor, 1844; founds casino called "Sociedad de Recreo" ("Recreation Association"), October 31, 1844; his proposal to establish military library approved, February 15, 1846; first steam war-vessels in the Philippines bought (in London), 1848; conquest of island of Balanguingui in Sulu Archipelago against the Moros, 1848, for which he receives the titles of count of Manila and viscount of Clavería, and the cross of San Fernando, besides other rewards; regular clergy forbidden to alienate property, January 15, 1849; surnames given to natives, November 11, 1849; his term marked by intense activity, and the number of papers founded, among them being the first daily of Manila, La Esperanza (December 1, 1846), and Diario de Manila (1848); asks retirement and returns to Spain, December 26, 1849; term as governor, July 16, 1844-December 26, 1849

ANTONIO MARÍA BLANCO—Segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), December 26, 1849; monthly lottery established in Manila, January 29, 1850; creates province of Unión, March 2, 1850; term as governor, December 26, 1849-June 29, 1850.

ANTONIO DE URBISTONDO Y EGUÍA—Native of San Sebastián, and marquis of Solana; formerly a Carlist; becomes governor June 29, 1850; leper hospital founded in Cebú, 1850; bank Español-Filipino established, August 1, 1851, and begins operations, 1852; expedition to and conquest of Joló, capital of Moroland, 1851; term characterized by many administrative laws; solicits retirement; term as governor, July 29, 1850-December 20, 1853; appointed minister of war by royal decree, October 12, 1856.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), December 20, 1853; term as governor, December 20, 1853-February 2, 1854.

MANUEL PAVÍA Y LAY—Marquis de Novaliches, lieutenant-general, head of department of infantry; appointed without previous consultation, September, 1853; arrives at Manila, February 2, 1854; reequips army; mutiny of portion of native troops suppressed; monthly mail between Manila and Hongkong established; leaves Manila, October 28, after thanking religious orders (October 27) for coöperation; term as governor, February 2-October 28, 1854.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Becomes governor (ad interim) for the second time, October 28, 1854; term as governor, October 28-November 20, 1854.

MANUEL CRESPO Y CEBRIÁN—Native of Extremadura, and formerly segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, November 20, 1854; expedition against Igorrotes, December, 1855-February, 1856; resigns December 5, 1856; term as governor, November 20, 1854-December 5, 1856.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Becomes governor (ad interim), for the third time, December 5, 1856; term as governor, December 5, 1856-March 9, 1857.

FERNANDO NORZAGARAY Y ESCUDERO—Native of San Sebastian, and lieutenant-general; enters upon office, March 9, 1857; authorizes establishments of houses of exchange, June 18, 1857; sends expedition to Cochinchina to aid French, 1858; reforms in local administration ordered, August 30, 1858; infantry reorganized by order of September 23, 1859; first Jesuit mission after reinstatement of order, reaches Philippines in middle of 1859; several papers founded during his term; encourages agriculture; solicits recall because of ill-health; term as governor, March 9, 1857-January 12, 1860.

RAMON MARÍA SOLANO Y LLANDERAL—Native of Valencia, mariscal-de-campo, and segundo cabo of Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), January 12, 1860; pawnshop authorized in Manila, January 18; issues decree for civil government of province of Manila, January 31; functions of bank Español-Filipino extended, February 16; Jagor travels through the Bisayas; term as governor January 12-August 29, 1860; death from fever (with rumor in Manila of poisoning), August 30.

JUAN HERRERA DÁVILA—Sub-inspector of artillery; becomes governor (ad interim), August 29, 1860; civil administration of provinces of the colonies organized, and Audiencia in Manila reformed, July 9, 1860; printing of Coleccion de autos acordados authorized, January 10, 1861; regularly appointed governor, general of marine Mac-Crohon, dies in Red Sea while on way to Philippines; term as governor, August 29, 1860-February 2, 1861.

JOSÉ LEMERY É IBARROLA NEY Y GONZÁLEZ—Senator of the kingdom; becomes governor, February 2, 1861; politico-military governments installed in Bisayas and Mindanao, April 1, 1861; Jesuits given Mindanao as mission field, and opposed by Recollects; operations against Moros; delivers command to segundo cabo, July 7, 1862; term as governor, February 2, 1861-July 7, 1862.

SALVADOR VALDÉS—Segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), July 7,1862; term as governor, July 7-9, 1862.

RAFAEL DE ECHAGUE Y BERMINGHAN—Native of San Sebastián, lieutenant-general, and governor at Puerto Rico; arrives at Manila, July 9, 1862; various insurrections, 1863; earthquake, June 3, 1863; creation of ministry of colonies, 1863; normal school established, January 23, 1865; term marked by various calamities; term as governor, July 9, 1862-March 24, 1865.

JOAQUIN DEL SOLAR É IBÁÑEZ—Segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), March 24, 1865; reforms in various branches of government, 1865; term as governor, March 24, 1865-April 25, 1865.

JUAN DE LARA É IRIGOYEN—Native of Navarra, lieutenant-general, and ex-minister of war; assumes office, April 25, 1865; Antonio Cánovas del Castillo appointed minister of the colonies, July 3, 1865; erection of bishopric of Jaro, by bull of Pius IX, 1865; establishment of Jesuit institution Ateneo Municipal at Manila, 1865; recalled for corruption of government; term as governor, April 25, 1865-July 13, 1866.

JOSÉ LAUREANO DE SANZ Y POSSE—Mariscal-de-campo, and segundo cabo elect because of former incumbent of that office having left islands with Lara; term as governor (ad interim), July 13-September 21, 1866.

ANTONIO OSORIO—Naval officer; becomes governor (ad interim), September 21, 1866; term as governor, September 21-September 27, 1866.

JOAQUIN DEL SOLAR—Becomes governor (ad interim), for the second time, September 27, 1866; term as governor, September 27-October 26, 1866.

JOSÉ DE LA GÁNDARA Y NAVARRO—Lieutenant-general; becomes governor, October 26, 1866; uniform monetary system adopted; reforms primary education; 1867-1868; resigns office; term as governor, October 26, 1866-June 7, 1869.

MANUEL MALDONADO—Segundo cabo of islands; becomes governor (ad interim), June 7, 1869; term as governor, June 7-June 23, 1869.

CÁRLOS MARÍA DE LA TORRE Y NAVA CERRADA—Native of Cuenca, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, June 23, 1869; constitution of 1869 sworn to, September 21, 1869; projects monument to Anda y Salazar; question of removing the monopoly on tobacco; guardia civil created; radical in government; term as governor, June 23, 1869-April 4, 1871.

RAFAEL DE IZQUIERDO Y GUTIERREZ—Native of Santander, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, April 4, 1871; insurrections in Cavite and Zamboanga, 1872; reforms in army; opening of steamship line and telegraph lines; governor resigns because of ill-health; term as governor, April 4, 1871-January 8, 1873.

MANUEL MAC-CROHON—Naval officer, becomes governor (ad interim), as office of segundo cabo vacant, January 8, 1873; term as governor, January 8-24 (?) , 1873.

JUAN ALAMINOS Y PE VIVAR—Becomes governor, January 24 (?), 1873; conflict with archbishop and other ecclesiastics; steamship line established between Manila and Spain; various ports opened for commerce; term as governor, January 24 (?), 1873-March 17, 1874.

MANUEL BLANCO VALDERRAMA—Becomes governor (ad interim), March 17, 1874; repulse of Joloans; hands over government to regularly appointed governor, June 18, 1874.

JOSÉ MALCAMPO Y MONJE—Marques de San Rafael and rear-admiral; becomes governor, June 18, 1874; conquest of Joló, 1876; given title of count of Mindanao, December 19, 1876; mutiny of artillerymen; term as governor, June 18, 1874-February 28, 1877; given titles of count of Joló and viscount of Mindanao, July 20, 1877.

DOMINGO MORIONES Y MURILLO—Marquis of Oroquieta, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, February 28, 1877; takes drastic measures against mutinous artillery regiment, 1877; prevents sale of tobacco monopoly, 1877; constructs Manila waterworks, 1878; term as governor, February 28, 1877-March 18 or 20, 1880.

RAFAEL RODRÍGUEZ ARIAS—Naval officer; becomes governor (ad interim), March 18 or 20, 1880; term as governor, March 18-April 15, 1880.

FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA—Marquis of Estella; becomes governor, April 15, 1880; cable opened between Luzón and Spain, 1880; royal decree orders repeal of tobacco monopoly, 1881; term marked by corruption in public offices; term as governor, April 15, 1880-March 10, 1883.

EMILIO MOLÍNS—Segundo cabo of Philippines; governor (ad interim), March 10-April 7, 1883.

JOAQUÍN JOVELLAR—General; becomes governor, April 7, 1883; decrease of annual period of personal services from forty to fifteen days, and creation of provincial tax, 1883; plan for railroads in Luzón approved, 1883; visits southern islands, 1884; tribute abolished and tax of cédula personal substituted, 1884; Jesuit observatory at Manila declared official, 1884.; term as governor, April 7, 1883-April 1, 1885.

EMILIO MOLÍNS—Becomes governor (ad interim), for second time, and rules three days, April 1-4, 1885.

EMILIO TERRERO Y PERINAT—Lieutenant-general becomes governor, April 4., 1885; leads expedition in person against Moros, 1885; dispute between Spain and Germany as to ownership of Carolinas, 1885 ; term as governor, April 4, 1885-1888.

ANTONIO MOLTO—Segundo cabo, term as governor (ad interim), 1888.

FEDERICO LOBATON—Naval officer; term as governor (ad interim), only one day in 1888.

March 1, 1888, a petition signed by eight hundred and ten natives and mestizos demands immediate expulsion of the friars of the religious orders and of the archbishop, the secularization of benefices, and the confiscation of the estates of Augustinians and Dominicans.

VALERIANO WÉYLER—Native of Majorca, marquis of Tenerife, and son of a German doctor; becomes governor, 1888; said to have purchased office from minister's wife; school of agriculture established in Manila, 1889; practical school of arts and trades established, 1890; telephone system established in Philippines, 1890; Dominican secondary school established in Dagupan, 1891; said to have received money from religious orders for armed support against their tenants; term as governor, 1888-1891; later minister of war at Madrid.

EULOGIO DESPUJOL—Native of Cataluña, and count of Caspe; becomes governor, 1891; Liga filipina (Philippine League) founded in Manila by Rizal, 1892; introduces many reforms; popular with natives; arouses wrath of religious orders, who are said to have paid $100,000 for his dismissal; term as governor, 1891-1893.

FEDERICO OCHANDO —Governor (ad interim), 1893.

RAMON BLANCO—Becomes governor, 1893; electric light established in Manila, 1895; formation of Katipunan society; outbreak of insurrection, August 30, 1896; Blanco opposed by ecclesiastics; term as governor, 1893-December 9 (date of royal decree removing him), 1896.

CAMILO POLAVIEJA—General; becomes governor, December 13, 1896 (Algué); Rizal executed, December 30, 1896; Tagál republic proclaimed, October, 1896; insurrection spreads; operations against insurgents by General Lachambre, 1897; Polavieja issues amnesty proclamation, January 11, 1897; efficient service of loyal Filipino troops; term as governor, December 13, 1896-April 15, 1897.

JOSÉ DE LACHAMBRE—General; governor (ad interim), April 15-23, 1897.

FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA—Becomes governor for the second time, April 23, 1897; insurgents scattered, and more than thirty thousand natives said to have been killed in one province; pact of Biak-na-bato signed, December 14, 1897; re-occurrence of insurrections in Luzón, 1898; term as governor, April 23, 1897-April 11, 1898.

BASILIO AUGUSTIN—Becomes governor, April 11, 1898; Spain declares war on U.S., April 23, 1898; U.S. declares war on Spain, April 25, 1898; U.S. Admiral Dewey's naval victory, May 1, 1898.

FERMÍN JÁUDENS—Becomes governor (ad interim), 1898; Spain surrenders, August 9, 1898; peace preliminaries, surrender of Manila, and entrance of Americans (August 13) into Manila.

FRANCISCO RIZZO—General; becomes governor (ad interim), 1898.

DIEGO DE LOS RÍOS—Becomes governor, with new capital at Iloílo, 1898; Treaty of Paris signed, December 10, 1898, handing sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States for $20 million; term as governor, after August 13, 1898-December 10, 1898; leaves Manila, January 1, 1899. 94  Spanish rule ends.

93 Inasmuch as Bonifaz, although junior auditor, obtained the office by trickery he was a true governor ad interim, and the Audiencia did not have charge of political affairs.

94 The following authorities were used in compiling the above list of governors: Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Mexico, 1609); Argensola, Conquistas de las Malucas (Madrid, 1609); Colin, Labor evangelica (Madrid, 1663)—who mentions as authorities the authors Morga, Grijalva, and Chirino; San Antonio, Chronicas, parte primera (Manila, 1738); Murillo Velarde, Historia (Manila, 1749); Delgado, Historia general (Manila, 1892); La Concepción, Historia general (Sampaloc, 1788-1792); Zúñiga, Historia de las islas Filipinas (Sampaloc, 1803), and Estadismo (Retana's ed., Madrid, 1893); Mas, Informe de las Islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1843); Buzeta and Bravo, Diccionario (Madrid, 1851); Montero y Vidal, Historia general (Madrid, 1887), and Historia de la pirateria (Madrid, 1888); Combés, Historia de Mindanao y Joló (Retana's ed., Madrid, 1897); Catálogo de la exposición general de las Islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1887); Algué, Archipiélago Filipino (Washington, 1900); Sawyer, Inhabitants of the Philippines (New York, 1900) ; Calkins, "Filipino Insurrection of 1896" in Harper's Monthly, vol. xcix, pp. 469-483; and various documents already published in this series.

Church-State relations in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period: A Sourcebook

(Source: Blair & Robertson, The Philippine Islands, volume 17, pp. 285-312) Home Page

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